By Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E
CD comprises scholar versions of the OASYS software program programs 'FREW' and 'Safe'.
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Extra resources for A short course in soil-structure engineering of deep foundations, excavations and tunnels
As shown in Fig. 3, a good example of a batholith is in the south-west peninsular of England, Devon and Cornwall. The peninsular is underlain by a large mass of igneous rock, mostly granite. At the ground surface, this is exposed forming Dartmoor, Bodmin Moor and Land’s End. What do igneous rocks look like? Most igneous rocks are crystalline meaning that the individual grains are fused together as shown in Fig. 4. This is easy to see when the individual grains are large enough to be seen with the naked eye or with a hand lens.
10. 40 Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved. CHAPTER 2 NEW GROUND: IGNEOUS ROCKS Coarse-grained phaneritic; crystals seen by eye Light colour White, grey, pink; black minerals rare Granite Intermediate colour Salt and pepper white/black ~ –50/50 Diorite Dark colour No light minerals; dark grey to black Gabbro Light green; granular; some black Olivine and/or pyroxene; no feldspar Peridotite Light colour White, grey, pink Rhyolite Felsite A light to intermediate coloured rock which cannot be positively identified Fine-grained aphanitic; no crystals visible; uniform Large crystals (phenocrysts) in groundmass Glassy Vesicular cellular; full of holes; often lightweight Fragmental Intermediate colour Dark grey typical but other colours too Andesite Dark colour Dark grey to black Basalt Light colour Phenocrysts of orthoclase and/or quartz Rhyolite porphyry Intermediate colour Phenocrysts of amphibole and/or plagioclase Andesite porphyry Dark colour Phenocrysts of olivine Basalt porphyry Black, red, brown Conchoidal fracture; breaks along smooth curving surfaces Obsidian Light colour and lightweight White to grey; spun glass look Pumice Dark colour and lightweight Black, brown, red Scoria Dark colour and heavy Black, grey to brownish Vesicular basalt Small, welded volcanic fragments; often stretched out Volcanic tuff Angular volcanic fragments larger than 64 mm Volcanic breccia Any colour; volcanic fragments cemented together Fig.
The geometry of the subduction zone is such that the magmatic arc forms on the continent and the compressive stresses may deform the continental margin into a fold mountain chain, such as the Andes. Unlike the ocean–ocean convergence the partial melting of the mantle and downgoing plate now takes place below much thicker continental crust. This results in the intrusion of granitic plutons within the deep roots of the mountain chain. The magmas may rise to the surface resulting in andesitic or even rhyolitic volcanoes.