ADHD as a Model of Brain-Behavior Relationships by Leonard F. Koziol

By Leonard F. Koziol

ADHD as a version of Brain-Behavior Relationships

Leonard F. Koziol, Deborah Ely Budding, and Dana Chidekel

sequence name: Springer Briefs in Neuroscience

Subseries: The Vertically equipped mind in thought and Practice

It's been a simple neurological given: the mind does our pondering, and has developed to do the pondering, as managed by way of the neocortex. during this schema, all disorder may be traced to difficulties within the brain’s lateral interactions. yet in clinical truth, is that this quite actual? not easy this conventional cortico-centric view is a physique of analysis emphasizing the function of the constructions that regulate movement-the brain's vertical organization-in behavioral indicators.

Using a well known, largely studied ailment as a attempt case, ADHD as a version of Brain-Behavior Relationships bargains an leading edge framework for integrating neuroscience and behavioral study to refine diagnostic strategy and enhance the certainty of problems. determining a profound disconnect among present neuropsychological trying out and how the mind truly features, this revision of the paradigm reviews the DSM and ICD by way of the connectedness of mind constructions relating to cognition and behaviour. The authors argue for a large-scale mind community method of pathology rather than the localizing that's so universal traditionally, and for another set of diagnostic standards proposed via the NIMH. integrated within the coverage:

  • The prognosis of ADHD: historical past and context.
  • ADHD and neuropsychological nomenclature
  • Research area standards: a dimensional method of comparing disorder
  • The improvement of motor talents, government functionality, and a relation to ADHD
  • The function of the cerebellum in cognition, emotion, motivation, and dysfunction
  • How large-scale mind networks interact

Heralding a extra actual way forward for evaluation, prognosis, and remedy of neurodevelopmental issues, ADHD as a version of Brain-Behavior Relationships represents an important breakthrough for neuropsychologists, baby psychologists, and psychiatrists, or any comparable occupation attracted to a neuroscientific knowing of mind function.

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Extra resources for ADHD as a Model of Brain-Behavior Relationships

Sample text

In many cases of ADHD, this balance is fundamentally disturbed and the selections made are not adaptive [138, 162]. L. F. 1007/978-1-4614-8382-3_13, Ó The Author(s) 2013 33 The Basal Ganglia The basal ganglia comprise a collection of bilaterally represented, anatomically and functionally linked groups of gray matter nuclei located deep within the white matter of the brain. They lie at the core of the cerebral hemispheres and are central to the basal forebrain. The term ‘‘basal ganglia’’ most commonly refers to four structures [163]: the striatum (the caudate, the putamen, and the nucleus accumbens); the globus pallidus (divided into the ventral pallidum, and the internal and external segments of the globus pallidus); the substantia nigra (divided into the subdivisions of the pars compacta and pars reticulata); and the subthalamic nucleus.

The findings imply that neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by self-regulation deficits, including ADHD, may be manifestations of delay or disruption in the development of these short- and longrange connectivity patterns. These studies also imply that the internal locus of control of behavior develops in a gradual way, from bottom-up influence to topdown control. L. F. 1007/978-1-4614-8382-3_11, Ó The Author(s) 2013 29 Large-Scale Brain Network Disturbances in ADHD A recent meta-analysis of 55 fMRI studies of children and adults with ADHD presented compelling evidence that the symptoms of ADHD are behavioral manifestations of dysfunction in multiple neuronal networks that are involved in higherlevel cognitive and sensorimotor processes, including the visual system and the default network [150].

This region plays a critical role in procedural memory for action concepts. The posterior parietal cortex (both superior and inferior regions) and its reciprocal connections with premotor areas and the frontal eye fields transform the dorsal pathway into a visual control area for actions. The parietal cortex focuses upon spatial information because these data are critical for specifying the parameters of ongoing and potential actions within egocentric or ‘‘reaching,’’ personal movement space [121].

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