Age-time patterns of cancer to be anticipated from exposure by Pierce D. A.

By Pierce D. A.

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They also found that the uptake of anthocyanins was 100-fold higher in the highly tumorigenic cells than in the low tumorigenic precursor line and remained at steady state levels for 12 h (Wang and Stoner, 2008). The mechanisms behind those chemopreventive effects of anthocyanins need to be considered at the molecular level. , 2005). , 2003). Besides targeting cell cycle arrest, inhibition of cancer cell growth could also be evaluated by blocking other signal transduction pathways such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the mitogen activation protein kinases (MAPK).

However, epidemiological studies in humans have not shown that anthocyanin consumption could reduce cancer risks in humans as discussed by Stoner and coworkers (Wang and Stoner, 2008). , 2005). However, anthocyanin structure/function relationships are not well understood. , 2005), which complicated the enigma of structure-bioactivity relationship. Since anthocyanidins are relatively simple in chemical structure (Fig. 1) and likely absorbed in GI tract due to their relative hydrophilic character, they are the primary targets to clarify the structure/function relationship of anthocyanins.

2007). , 2004). , 2005). , 2005). Delphinidin treatment of PC3 prostate carcinoma cells resulted in a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and cells arrest in G2-M phase. , 2008). 5 Anti-inflammatory Effects Inflammatory cells are implicated in the tumor microenvironment and play a crucial role in tumor development and progression (Balkwill and Mantovani, 2001). The microenvironment of many human cancers is rich in cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory enzymes. , 2004). , 2007). 6 Anti-angiogenic Activity Angiogenesis is another key regulator for cancer progression which is defined as new blood vessel formation.

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